Arthritis is a common chronic inflammatory disorder and a major cause of disability.
The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Osteoarthritis is the most common arthritis worldwide and affects millions of patients worldwide. It happens when the cartilage between the bones is worn out, leading to decreased cushioning and protection in the joints. The current treatment for osteoarthritis is typically conservative in nature with physical therapy and avoidance of stress to the affected joint. Often, osteoarthritis will progress where patients might need fluid to be drained from the joint and potentially have steroid or anesthetics injected into the joint to decrease the inflammation and the pain. In late-stage patients, a joint replacement may be needed. Although osteoarthritis starts as a physical damage, joint inflammation plays a significant role in the advancement of the disease overtime.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease, which means that immune system attacks healthy cells by mistake, causing inflammation in the affected parts of the body. Rheumatoid arthritis mainly manifests itself in joint pain and joint swelling and distortion. RA is estimated to affect approximately 0.24 to 1 percent of the population. Treatment for RA usually includes the use of medications that slow disease and prevent joint deformity, called disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Biological response modifiers (biologicals) are medications that are an effective second-line treatment. During acute joint flares, patients would occasionally require a joint injection which often consist of steroids but steroid injections sometimes are associated with post injection flares.
Limited treatment options are available for OA and RA. Existing treatment generally compromises body’s immune system to lower immune response. Macrophage-Nanosponge is uniquely positioned to neutralize the inflammatory cytokines and control the painful inflammation without compromising the immune system.